This game bird is hunted eagerly. In some regions it has almost been exterminated. It is the habit of these dull-plumaged birds to lie hidden in the grass until the hunter's dogs are upon them; then, with a sudden, loud whirring sound and with almost the speed of an arrow, they rise before the startled hunter, who must remain both cool and quick if he is to bag his game.
The common colors in the plumage are brown, gray, and red, with touches of purple and dark green in some species. Generally the colors of the male birds are more pronounced. The dress of the female is a good example of protective coloration. It is so similar to the colors of her surroundings that, if she remains motionless on her nest among the grass and leaves, even a keen-eyed fox or hawk will pass her by. Some members of the grouse family that live in regions where snow is common change their sober summer coats of grayish brown for a winter plumage of white. On their feet they grow downy feathers that keep them from sinking into the snow. These are the ptarmigans. Other species grow horny appendages from the sides of the toes to serve as snowshoes.
The male birds are noisy wooers. During the mating season their peculiar love calls may be heard ringing through the woods and over the prairie lands. These calls, which take the place of the mating song of singing birds, are dull booming sounds variously produced. Some species have a most extraordinary wing power and by rapidly beating the air or their breast feathers produce a sound that may be heard for a mile or more. Other species are furnished with an air sac of loose skin which acts as a sort of bagpipe. The bird inflates it to an amazing size; then, with a jerking of the head, it forces the air from the sac with a hollow "boom, boom, boom" which draws the female birds of its kind. These love "songs" are accompanied by much strutting about and spreading of feathers and by fights among the cocks.
Grouse range in size from the small white-tailed ptarmigan 13 inches long to the sage hen 30 inches long. They eat seeds, fruits, and insects. Among all the various species, except the ptarmigans, one cock mates with a whole covey of hens. The nest is on the ground and the hen takes entire care of the 10 to 14 eggs and of the young brood.
The best-known North American species is the ruffed grouse, incorrectly known in the North as the "partridge" and in the South as the "pheasant." It is found across southern Canada and northern United States to the Pacific coast, and south to Georgia and Kansas. About 18 inches long, it has tufts of shiny black feathers on each side of its neck, which look like a ruff and so give the bird its name. A crest of feathers adorns the top of its head. In the early days before this bird had come to know the ways of man it was so trustful that it would sometimes sit quietly until it was knocked from its perch with a club, and so it was often called a "fool hen." It became wise to an uncanny degree. A mother bird will try to entice hunters away from her brood by crying and fluttering along the ground as if wounded. The ruffed grouse is the state bird of Pennsylvania.
Franklin's grouse lives in the deep fir forests of the western mountains. On the prairies of the Middle West, from Canada to Texas, are found prairie chickens, or pinnated grouse. Once they were numerous; but these fast, straight-flying birds are tempting sport for hunters and are delicious food. They were shot down by the millions. At the same time the advancing farms and settlements destroyed their natural foods and coverts. Today their numbers and range are greatly reduced. With wise protection, however, they should escape the fate of the heath hens, which are now extinct. The sage hen is the largest of the family. Its home is the barren alkali desert, where it lives almost entirely on sage leaves. The old birds taste too strongly of sage, but the young are good food. They too face extermination.
The ptarmigan, or "snow grouse," lives in the Arctic regions of America from Alaska to Labrador but sometimes migrates southward in the winter. There are three kinds the willow, rock, and white-tailed. The willow ptarmigan is the state bird of Alaska.
Red grouse, or moorfowl, are abundant in the British Isles. Sportsmen from all over the world go to Scotland in the fall for grouse shooting.
Grouse belong to the order Galliformes, which includes guans, quails, pheasants, and turkeys. The scientific name of the ruffed grouse is Bonasa umbellus; of Franklin's grouse, Canachites franklinii; of prairie chicken, Tympanuchus cupido; of sage hen, Centrocercus urophasianus; of willow ptarmigan, Lagopus lagopus.
Excerpted from Comptonís Interactive Encyclopedia Copyright © 1993, 1994 Comptonís NewMedia, Inc.